# Cost Of Plastic Per Cubic Inch

This industry standard estimator will aid in determining the potential scope of your project. "NPL's working standards and most of the weights sent to NPL for calibration are made of stainless steel (density 8. The products can define the edges of a walkway or the perimeter of a patio. • Printed circuit Boards 4 cents per square inch per layer (servers) 1 cent per cubic inch passing their material cost saving. To get the idea from the start, 3D printing cost for even a cubic inch of any material is expensive. The panels in this insulating foam sheet kit are 48 inches long and can be cut or combined to fill the bulk of your cavity. Topsoil is also sold in bags, at $2-$5 a bag. Cubic meters 35. 7438368 cubic inch, or 1000000 grams. Thermoforming is commonly used for food packaging, but has many applications from plastic toys to aircraft windscreens to cafeteria trays. 1225 cubic feet or lwh=240/98/90 inches holds 40 drums (55 us gallons) with a MAXIMUM WEIGHT OF 22,000 LBS, FITTING 10 STANDARD SIZE PALLETS. Head losses are calculated for PVC pipe Schedule 40 by using the Hazen-Williams equation and the Hazen-Williams roughness constant c = 145. Building c ost per square meter | Construction cost per square metre BLOCK A BLOCK B Example of how building cost per square meter can vary assuming that an internal division wall will cost us 4,500. 20 foot container, approx. Custom Injection Molding part cost estimator. 434 PSI (lbs. The pots have to be big enough to keep the root system alive without killing the microorganisms around the roots. The costs involved in the installation or repair of patios and walkways are dependent on a number of factors. Cut three plastic sheets of equal size. 5 tons per cubic yard to get the number of tons you will need. Industrial Bags. The formula is: Length (L) x Width (W) x Depth (D) = Cubic volume, then divide by 7 to determine the number of 500 ball cases you need. Topsoil is also sold in bags, at $2-$5 a bag. Say if I weld a 6" Sched 80 pipe, versus if I weld a 4" Sched 40. 60 x 5,400 $3,240 Intermodal containers (3) Container drayage to Port of Oakland $1,000 x 3 $3,000 Insurance $27,800 x. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 140 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1. The following is a table of density of some common materials that I use in my work. So the total cost comes out to be Rs. Seriously, Jim, I have never broken down a per-foot cost for trenching or laying or restoring. **Your boxes will be stacked onto a 40x48 inch wooden pallet and the longest, widest, and highest points of the stack will be multiplied to calculate your final volume. 243 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 243 kilogram per cubic meter, i. About 1% of these are plastic sheets, 1% are hdpe. 2 Low pressure natural gas tables. 0 cubic inches FB407 8. 00$ per cubic inch. Ashbel Merrel Leonard started A. Bucket BCK Cubic inch IN3 Ton, short (2000 lb) TON Book BK Kilogram KG Tonne (metric ton, 1000 kg) T Bale BL Square kilometer KM2 Tube TU Barrel BBL Kilometer KM Vial VIA Bottle BOT Kit KIT Cord CDS Bushel BU Pound LB Weeks WK Box BOX Linear Foot LF Watt W Nanometer NAM Lot LOT Square yard YD2 Can CAN Liter L Cubic yard YD3. Carbon steel is a steel alloy comprised mainly of iron and carbon. This is almost a quarter of the weight of steel. Use this page to learn how to convert between grams and cubic centimeters. Example 24 inches x 24 inches x 48 inches = 27,648 CUBIC INCHES. Pouring plain concrete costs $5 to $10 per square foot depending on the quality, while colored, stamped, or stained concrete costs $8 to $18 per square foot to install. Air, on the other hand has a very low specific heat (. 3-inch by 8. Used Filter Presses Below is Aaron's inventory of unused and used filter presses. In the corrugated pipe the outlet velocity is 6 feet per second (ft /sec) while in the smooth pipe the outlet velocity is over 9 ft /sec!. The highly accurate Venturi metering system is simple to calibrate and easy to operate allowing anyone to take to the field with the 8600. Typically, lower freight classes represent items of higher density and therefore a lower cost. The cost of mulching will increase or decrease based upon a number of factors. Because blasting was not allowed, the excavation costs were estimated at $50. Find the cost of the material for the cheapest container. Medical or health care facilities require specialized cleaning and are usually at the higher end of the price range -- and may be billed on an hourly. Size: about 18. How much does it cost to build a storage shed? It is often quite amazing just how handy a small storage shed can be. Online calculator to quickly determine Air Flow Rate through Piping. Now we can set up a simple ratio: 1000 grams/$30. 5 cubic inches per inch of depth). Divide the weight (in pounds) of the shipment by the total cubic feet. The values come from reference books and data sheets. 03819 cubic feet. Toolbars, water tanks, and other options cost additional amounts. For film there are one (SWS) or two sides (tubing) and in many cases gussets or a lip. 5 cubic feet for each 10 pounds of lobster. Pipe welding and inches per day Hey guys, can someone please enlighten me how inches are calculated for pipe welding. Weight per cubic inch (Density) of steel is. WHAT IT IS AND HOW IT IS USEFUL Biofuels are renewable energy sources from living organisms. Cubic foot of crushed asphalt per ton Products. This reddish-brown color landscaping stone is usually about two inches in diameter. Water leak Examples Normal water use plus a hidden water pipe leak can quickly add up to excessive water bills! Give us a call if you suspect a water leak. use the following equation: 1 gallon of resin covers 1608 square feet per 1 mil or 0. Math Review Questions Working with Feet and Inches A foot is broken up into twelve equal parts called inches. The size is right for general household items as long as they are packed rationally, and they can be stacked easily in your storage space. 2 Low pressure natural gas tables. EXPRESS 27 55# Bag High Strength Conventional Castable. The only difference is the outlet velocity. The cost is $2. In the examples above, if the high end cost per cubic inch of $145 was used to determine costs on the Electronic Housing, the customer would have paid almost 3 times the fair price. 41 quart (1. 5-inch wheelbase Lancer powered by a 101 horsepower Slant Six engine, its own version of the. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 140 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1. The impeller and magnet are the only moving parts in the measuring chamber. Divide the capacity of the tank in cubic inches by the height of the tank. Your actual price may be lower or higher, depending upon location, piece size and shape and quantity. This formula can be used to determine the weight per foot for any size of pipe with any wall thickness. 14 Abbreviations: cfs cubic feet per second DO dissolved oxygen ft feet g grams gpd gallons per day gpg grains per gallon gpm gallons per minute in inches. 8 kPa gauge)] in cubic feet per hour of 0. 46 per cubic inch. Using the column marked 50 feet: Outlet D, supplying 136. person needs an urn that is. Getting it wrong will cost you. Use the below online Wood CFT calculator to calculate cubic feet for wood. Cubic foot (cu. Weight Of Metals Per Cubic Inch It is often necessary in designing a machine to know the weight of its parts, and any good engineer's handbook will give the weights per cubic inch of all the metals. 44 tonnes per cubic metre. 13368 cubic foot, weighs approx. Online material weight calculator, stone weight calculation, marble granite weight calculation, metal weight calculation, wood plastic weight calculation. This amounted to nearly a million dollars of added excavation cost to the estimate. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. 1) Volume in cubic meters is 2 x 1. 21 kilograms per cubic meter). The values come from reference books and data sheets. 41 ml in the imperial system or about 29. 70 Bismuth 611. 65 per cubic foot? And what is weight per $0. A free and useful calculator for Packaging Engineers which can perform common conversions, density calculations, corrugate calculations, pallet pattern generation, OTR and MVTR estimates. Closed-cell spray foam costs $. 015 per cubic inch of material, what is the cost to manufacture 10,000 connector pieces? SHOW WORK. So, if 1728 cu. Waste Management provides up to two (2) 64-gallon carts at no cost for customers with a minimum of four cubic yards per week of trash service. 103 Project Responsibilities 1. Fortus450mc Fused Deposition Printer - Parts are generated by extruding a thin filament of ABS, ASA, Nylon 12, or ULTEM to create successive layers ranging from 0. If you have any questions or good suggestions on our products and site, or if you want to know more information about our products, please write them and send to us, we will contact you within one business day. 57 ml in the US system. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery April 2016. It is calculated in either Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) or Feet per Minute (FPM). Carey Wilson and his son Rupert waited until the clean, processed air swirled into the airlock and forced out the noxious fumes that had entered with them before removing their gas masks. Cages should be equipped with covers to prevent fish losses from jumping or bird predation. Because the size of a micron (25,400 microns per inch) and the number of cells the laser can engrave into the ceramic, a second unit had to be added to get the volume unit up to an understandable number. 55:1 rear axle ratio, the 435 horsepower 427C. A cubic yard is 3 feet long by 3 feet wide by 3 feet tall. One cubic yard of concrete weighs about 4000 lb. Weighing concrete in tonnes per cubic meter or kilograms kg, lb pounds per cubic foot or yd yards. A wide variety of polyethylene price options are available to you, such as free samples, paid samples. TOGGLE : from grams into cubic centimeters in the other way around. The cost of a clay liner runs from $10 to $20 per cubic yard (depending on the ready availability and quality of the clay). 48 Antimony 419. 21) x ($45 per Lb) divided by 454. As a reminder, these fillers will affect the viscosity of the casting resins. Add $38 to $44 per foot of diameter for sand and gravel foundation with retaining ring. This online calculator helps you to calculate either of the three parameters namely, the air flow in FPM (Feet per Minute), CFM and the area in square feet. With gutter and downspout rain water disposal, a two (2) inch rainfall is 1. Composite Decking Weight Vs. So, if you want to keep 144 pounds of fish in the same pond, you will need to have one that holds 72 cubic feet of water, or 538. Asphalt 3 shingles 4 with galvanized flashing 5 - this will cost an average of $80 to $100 per square of 50-year shingles 4 (which cover around 100 square feet). I’ve wondered for a while about the cost of operating a MakerBot. Conversely, less dense commodities usually have higher class ratings; the lower the class, the lower the charge per hundredweight. It is possible to run more water through the 2. Prices of Ply wood(per q. Most pallets are roughly 48x40 inches. It won't help you to find constants - for example, the volume of a sphere is: V = (4/3) * pi * r^3 Dimensional analysis will help you get the "r^3" part, since volume is in inches cubed and the radius is in inches. 96 / round bale 1. It's easy to choose the right amount of film for your project. Now to convert to cubic feet you much divide that number by 1,728 which equals 16 CUBIC FEET. 5% greater ultimate strength than the "equivalent" region of steel plate). Include the cost of gravel. A model measuring 4. 50 per inch (diameter up to 18 inches) Untreated Construction Wood: $8 per cubic yard (no plywood, particle board, etc. Grodan MM 40/40 6/15 Plugs, 1. 00 if you have a separate meter for irrigation, or $39. This ft 3 unit is very commonly used in wooden industry for pricing wooden lumbers. Tree waste may be loose or bundled. 785 liters in a U. 2 Type 46 Storm Inlet A5 60" Diameter Storm Manhole. Cost per part is. inch Atmosphere 0. 5 inch poly pipe will deliver the required maximum flow with 3. Square inches = opening (width) X length of any given piece of film. Labor costs contributing to per part cost can be split into two categories: set-up and operator. Composite Decking Weight Vs. 96 per cubic inch. Suncast® Glidetop Slide Lid Storage Unit 4'9" x 6'7" x 4'4" Please Note: Prices, promotions, styles and availability may vary by store and online. The volume required for each 12 AWG conductor is 2. 3048 Meters Feet of water 62. These pesticides often require a. Approximately 1 acre-inch per hour. The Production of Rubber and Changing Rubber Costs. 48 Centimeters Feet 0. Set Project Zip Code Enter the Zip Code for the location where labor is hired and materials purchased. A liter is a non-metric unit of volume which is equal to the volume of a cube with 10 cm on each side. 18 bushel hamper = 0. Inventory is sold and received continuously throughout the day; therefore, the quantity shown may not be available when you get to the store. The $3 is broken down to $1 per hour of 3D printing that accounts for the filament cost and $2 fixed cost for every 3D print job. Cubic Meter Calculator allows you to calculate volume of packages in cubic meter with dimensions in cm, mm, meter, inch, feet and yard (metric and imperial units) for multiple products (mixed cargo). per cubic foot of stover. 08 / loaded mile 2. If you need to know how much water should to be pumped by a pump then use the pump calculator. Like concrete, plastic can be molded to fit any shape desired. Material for the sides costs $6 per square meter. Cubic Zirconia Micro Pave Brass Bracelet Tree gold color plated Unisex box chain micro pave cubic zirconia nickel lead cadmium fre at wholesale prices. 05 per cubic inch for this particular USD$78 spool of polycarbonate. of surface area per cubic foot. miner's inches, 40 Calif. Enter dimensions in US units (inches or feet) or metric units (centimeters or meters) to calculate the cubic yards, cubic feet and cubic meters. cost of plastic per cubic foot - WPC) deck flooring cost of plastic per cubic foot Another disadvantage of wpc timber is the high cost, cost of plastic per cubic foot cost of plastic per cubic foot. 31 feet of water 1 ton = 2,000 pounds 1% = 10,000 mg/L Π or pi = 3. Compare the prices to the prices on www. Rate of flow units. Often, a geotextile filter blanket is placed above the granular soil layer, but this is not recommended. 120 to 122 pounds per cubic foot and in-situ moisture content ranges from 12 to 14 percent. It takes 900 to 1,000 crankshaft horsepower to run the supercharger. For best results, plan to till one inch of compost into every 4 to 6 inches of soil. 40 per cubic meter [2 to 11 cubic foot per cubic yard] of concrete. 1 cubic meter is equal to 61023. , and Vietnam, which supply 99%, 1%, and 1% of abs plastic price respectively. Concrete in Australia can cost anything from $150 per square metre to $300 per square metre depending on where you live and the distance you are from a concrete plant. 65 per cubic foot?. c) Bird seed will cost $0. Bucket BCK Cubic inch IN3 Ton, short (2000 lb) TON Book BK Kilogram KG Tonne (metric ton, 1000 kg) T Bale BL Square kilometer KM2 Tube TU Barrel BBL Kilometer KM Vial VIA Bottle BOT Kit KIT Cord CDS Bushel BU Pound LB Weeks WK Box BOX Linear Foot LF Watt W Nanometer NAM Lot LOT Square yard YD2 Can CAN Liter L Cubic yard YD3. In existing structures, installers remove a strip of exterior siding, usually about waist high; drill a row of three inch holes, one into each stud bay, through the wall sheathing; insert a special filler tube to the top of the wall cavity; and blow the insulation into the building cavity, typically to a density of 3. Tree waste may be loose or bundled. ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE (UHMW-PE) Lower replacement cost than polyurethane or steel provides more cubic inches per pound than other plastic. The additional cost for support material used during printing can be very minimal or depending on the geometry of the part it can be considerably more than the part itself due to the inability to. 001 inch cured coating thickness on a smooth and none absorbent substrate (a pane of glass for example). Typically, lower freight classes represent items of higher density and therefore a lower cost. It’s a very helpful ratio because when spreading mulch, a depth of 3 inches is considered ideal. Enter the cost per yard of sheeting and click on Calculate. They measure total flow in gallons. If there is any doubt that a pipe size may create a pressure drop, use the next largest size. foot 62 Cubic Feet Gallons 7. • Many building material suppliers and tool rental companies offer ready-mix concrete that can be hauled using a small trailer with about one cubic yard capacity that they will provide as part of the price. One cubic foot of water weighs 62. That's on. Unlike thermoplastic foams (PVC, SAN,), the unit cost of polyurethane foam increases in a linear fashion with density, so a 20-lbs. Solution: Table 4 shows that for 10 cycles per hour and a ⅜-inch drainage coefficient, 1. Use our calculator for conversion formulas, metric equivalents and more. To calculate the volume of a container in gallons when you have the volume in cubic inches, divide the number of cubic inches by 231. Plastic bottles are ubiquitous but the cost of producing them varies dramatically around the world, thanks mainly to differences in raw-material costs and energy prices. One cubic meter (approximately 1. Our oak fireplace beams can be hand-picked in almost all cross-sections and lengths. Strong aerogel panels made of Airloy X103, a high-strength organic aerogel that is stable to about 80°C, are being made available on BuyAerogel. We can send containers. The Customer is responsible for the final actual cost. Costs by Material The average costs of general line products like vinyl and rubber range from as little as $0. 018 BTU per cubic foot). 00433 Feet of water Pounds per sq. NEWSLETTER SIGN-UP. One cubic yard of compost will cover approximately 325 square feet. foot 62 Cubic Feet Gallons 7. Units = none. Factoring for the percentage infill will reduce the cost per cubic inch for both filaments. 1 grams (pre-1982) and 2. Standard 90 degree wall and ceilings, finish sanded and primed white ready for your paint. 900-inch stroke. # description color. TOGGLE : from grams into cubic centimeters in the other way around. 00 to spend. These weight formulas are for nominal weights, (and are approximations), and should not be considered an exact weight. 05 per cubic inch for this particular USD$78 spool of polycarbonate. The weight of concrete is, on average, 145 pounds per cubic foot. These molds are economical and can be fabricated quickly, which will allow inexpensive prototype parts to be fabricated. Next, calculate the volume for the existing conductors. “expensive” filament. Suncast® Glidetop Slide Lid Storage Unit 4'9" x 6'7" x 4'4" Please Note: Prices, promotions, styles and availability may vary by store and online. I tried to find this on the internet but couldn't so after getting some smaller pieces to play around with I thought I'd figure out the weights and post them. Cubic Feet Cubic Inches 1728 Pounds per sq. Not having enough material or having too much left over is not only frustrating, but costly. 5mm thick, hole: 2mm. person needs an urn with 160 cubic inches (it is ok to have a little extra space in the urn) 200 lbs. Balls are expensive. 25 per foot. 032 pounds) of plastic, and the ten percent by volume of plastic mixes included 1076. 3500, then this block of teak wood will cost 864 x 3500 /1728 = Rs. 7 litre engine with 350 brake horsepower, has a listed top speed of 180 miles per hour and does zero to sixty in 4. How big of filter for a 4×4 grow tent? For a 4×4 grow tent with a height of 6. or cubic feet/lbs. Anybody know where to find weight per cubic inch for Plexiglas or acrylic? The net is full of weights per cubic inch for metals, but nothing on Plexiglas or acrylic. This corn gallon holds 268. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Smaller tanks up to 10,000 gallons have 2" staves, larger tanks have 3". Also known as: HDPE. 5 cc of plastic per bearing, at a cost of $0. For bags there are two sides and in many gussets, lips, back flips, etc. Light-weight Concrete. Martensitic stainless steels are essentially alloys of chromium and carbon that possess a distorted body-centered cubic crystal structure in the hardened condition. MetalPlateSource : WEIGHT OF STEEL PLATE - STEEL PLATE STANDARD SHAPE DRAWINGS CUSTOM SHAPE FORMS CUSTOM ORDER FORMS PLATES FOR TIMBER TRUSSES CONSUMER PRODUCTS steel plate,laser cut,plasma cut,cut to size,custom fabricated,CNC cut,base plate,column base,truss plate,sewer lidmanhole cover,A36, structural steel. 5 US cents x 16. For liquids Americans preferred to use the traditional British wine gallon, which Parliament defined as 231 cubic inches in 1707. The improved all plastic attached lid container leads the industry in design and proven performance. Our huge selection of Industrial Strength Packaging Products includes plastic bags, poly tubing, sealers, tape, stretch film and much more. These colorful stones make a wonderful contrast to the mostly green colors of a garden, or as an edge for a fire pit, as it can look remarkably natural. The cost of mulching will increase or decrease based upon a number of factors. 067 pound per cubic inch (1. An acre-foot is the volume of water required to cover an acre one foot. Feed value of one ton of corn stover is estimated to equal the value of. Whether it is silicon, ceramic, plastic or FR4, the cost is generally per square inch or cubic inch. 6 inches of rear legroom. Excess material can be reground, mixed with unused plastic, and reformed into thermoplastic sheets. Material for the base costs $10 per square meter. height x width x depth ÷ 128 = cords. Answer Depending on the relative proportions of water, sand, stone, and cement, the weight per cubic yard can vary from less than 2000 lbs to nearly 3500 lbs; I would …. For a basic project in zip code 47474 with 500 square feet, the cost to Install Mulch starts at $0. Enter the dimensions of your shipment (in inches or cm if metric is selected). Since several people have asked, the really short answer is "about a dollar per cubic inch". Bridget is going shopping with her friends at American Eagle. ,Ltd company is the best wood plastic composite producers and suppliers. Easy installation, lightweight and lower transportation costs. 25 x 10 x 12 inch tank in US gallons How many US gallons will a 10 inchs wide 12 inchs high and 25 inchs long tank hold? Assuming internal dimensions or no wall thickness, the volume of the tank is 12. If I have a 2. 067 pound per cubic inch (1. In addition, explore hundreds of other calculators including topics such as finance, math, health, fitness, weather, and even transportation. In the text box BELOW the item on the checkout page, write the size that you would like it cut to. -per-cubic foot polyurethane foam will be approximate twice the cost of a 10-lb. Not only that, but of course one must hearken back to the timeless idea of "supply and demand. One cubic yard of concrete weighs about 4000 lb. foot 62 Cubic Feet Gallons 7. Carbon steel is a steel alloy comprised mainly of iron and carbon. Company B's material was lighter; even though it was marginally more expensive per pound, since the mold's cavity had the same volume of plastic used the relevant parameter was not cost-per-pound but cost-per-cubic-inch. Water stores tremendous quantities of heat. The grooves should be at least 1\2 inch to 3\4 inches deep. It has great strengths (CCS 14,000psi after 1500F and has a density of 139lbs per cubic feet. The fridge uses about 0. 02 $556 Ocean freight rates (a) $22 per 2,000 pounds $594 Ocean freight rates (b) $22 per 40 cubic feet $2,970 Pick higher of (a) or (b) $2,970 Total $31,366. The WM-PC Series economy plastic water meter is excellent for residential water metering. A 1 kilogram (1000 gram) spool of PLA costs about $30. What would a three inch diameter lead ball weigh? The radius of 1. Density is a way of describing the weight (mass) of a quantity of material. 3 pounds of chemical per million gallons. 1 cubic inch of plastic. As you saw above, there is quite a range for crushed stone prices. Of the three types of printers, this produces models with the best resolution and durability, but is more expensive. Originated from an ancient French measurement system, a liter is now used very widely around the world for measuring volume of all kinds of liquid substances. Direct filtration plants have a lower capitol cost. Here you can make instant conversion from this unit to all other compatible units. An acre-inch is the volume of water required to cover an acre of land one inch deep. Rigid urethane foam is a plastic solid with a random cellular structure of up to a million closed cells per cubic inch of expanded material. A list of all of the sizes bottles come in CBD, cannabis, BPA Free, eliquid, boston rounds, dropper bottles, Ja. Which means for 1 customary cup (ie. 9 inches $0. The other possible weight that a freight company may use to calculate shipping costs is called cubic weight, and that is based on cubic feet/meters. 6 cubic inches Steel& Plastic Plastic FB405 6. 5-inch wheelbase Lancer powered by a 101 horsepower Slant Six engine, its own version of the. Bring the Ohio Steel 42″ (22 cubic feet) lawn sweeper home through the comfort and convenience of e-commerce, and save money. A cubic foot of water equals: Approximately 405 gallons per minute (gpm). ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE (UHMW-PE) Lower replacement cost than polyurethane or steel provides more cubic inches per pound than other plastic. Take time to compare a density reading to another well-known wood, and see how it measures up. Further investigation revealed that the soil was in fact unweathered massive granite rock. Records storage boxes File Storage Boxes. In the text box BELOW the item on the checkout page, write the size that you would like it cut to. A wide variety of polyethylene price options are available to you, such as free samples, paid samples. The second generation rose to 390 horsepower and 407 lb-ft of torque in the Dodge Ram — 375 horsepower in the 2009 Dodge Challenger with manual transmission; power varied by car or truck. The cost of a clay liner runs from $10 to $20 per cubic yard (depending on the ready availability and quality of the clay). 042 Cubic Feet Cubic Yards 0. An evaluation of the more com-monly used mulches follows. ,Ltd company is the best wood plastic composite producers and suppliers. per foot : Squares: Dimension (D) in inches squared x 3. The UK gallon or imperial gallon originally was defined as 10 lbs of water, but the modern definition is exactly 4. Rock wool rated at R-15 and designed to fit a 4-inch wall costs $0. Material for the sides costs $6 per square meter. The $3 is broken down to $1 per hour of 3D printing that accounts for the filament cost and $2 fixed cost for every 3D print job. 785 liters in a U. measured by pounds per square inch (psi), industrial blasting is effectively done between 20 and 90 PSI. You can either enter the material cost or customer cost depending on what you're calculating. *Manure density (weight per cubic foot) varies with moisture content, primarily depending on amount of bedding. The cost to pour a concrete pad depends greatly on whether you intend to do the work yourself or hire a contractor. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: